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学术影响力评价的是非争议


编辑:阎光才   2019年07月09日


                      学术影响力评价的是非争议*  (2019年第6期)

                                     阎光才

  [摘 要] 学术影响力原本是生发于学术共同体内部的一个自然而然的传播机制,因为社会环境与科学研究本质的变化而逐步扩展为内部影响与外部贡献兼顾。影响力的科学计量分析是顺应大科学时代学术分工细化的产物,但它存在诸多缺陷,以其作为政策工具存在众多争议。把学术影响力评价作为一种政策工具将不仅面临诸多困境,而且还需要对其可能带来的效应做充分的预估和评价。现实之中众多大范围有组织的学术评价仅仅是特定情势中的一种临时性政策手段。合理的学术评价应以围绕研究内容本身的同行评议为主,辅之以更为丰富的定性、定量与案例信息作为证据支撑。相对于影响力评价这一政策工具的运用,培植成熟的学术共同体和养成良好的研究伦理与学问、理顺高校内外体制与机制、营造有利于学术发展的环境与氛围是学术影响力评价健康发展的根本所在。

  [关键词] 学术影响力;评价;科学计量学;同行评议

  [编辑概况] 阎光才,华东师范大学教育学部教授 (上海 200062)

                 Controversies over the Assessment of Academic Impact

                                      Yan Guangcai

  Abstract: Academic impact, originally generated and transmitted within the academic community, has gradually tended to attach equal importance to internal impacts and external contributions, due to the essential changes of the social environment and scientific research. The scientometric analysis of academic impact is an outcome from the refined academic divisions in the Great Age of Science, but it has defects, and there are controversies as to its being used as a policy instrument. The use of academic impact assessment as a policy instrument will face difficulties, and it is necessary to fully predict and evaluate its potential effects. The existing wide-ranging organized assessments of academic outcomes are only a temporary policy intervention under special circumstances. An appropriate assessment of academic research is supposed to be primarily based on peer review, supported by sufficient qualitative and quantitative information, as well as cases. Compared with the assessment of academic impact as a policy instrument, academic impact assessment can attain healthy development fundamentally based on the cultivation of mature academic communities, the development of good research ethics and culture, the optimization of the internal and external mechanisms of colleges and universities, and the creation of an environment and atmosphere conducive to the development of academic research.

  Key words: academic impact; assessment; scientometrics; peer review

  Author: Yan Guangcai, professor of the Faculty of Education, East China Normal University (Shanghai 200062)

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